The Education System of the Republic of Belarus
The Republic of Belarus in the ranking of states according to the human development index in terms of indicators in the field of education belongs to the states with a very high level of human development. This is evidenced by such macro indicators as the literacy rate of the adult population (99.7%), coverage of the employed population with basic, general secondary and vocational education (98%). In terms of enrollment of children in primary and secondary schools, the number of students in higher educational institutions, Belarus is at the level of developed countries in Europe and the world. Every third inhabitant of the republic studies.
The state policy in the field of education is based on strengthening the leading principles of the development of the Belarusian school, among which are: the state-public nature of management; ensuring the principle of justice, equal access to education; improving the quality of education for everyone.
Education is provided at the basic, additional and special levels. Basic education includes preschool, general secondary, vocational, higher, postgraduate and inclusive education. Additional is subdivided into additional education of children and youth, additional education of adults. The training of scientific and scientific-pedagogical personnel is carried out in graduate school, doctoral studies of institutions (organizations) implementing educational programs of postgraduate education.
In total, there are more than 8 thousand educational institutions in the republic, in which about 3 million children, pupils, students and listeners study. More than 400 thousand employees are involved in the educational process (every 10th employed in the economy).
In recent years, much has been done in the country in the education system: the necessary legislative framework has been created, stable funding is provided, students and teachers are provided with social support. With the active participation of all subjects of the educational process, the consideration in the second reading of the new edition of the Education Code is coming to an end. The most important changes that have been made to this document can be divided into four blocks: norms relating to general issues of improving the education system; norms regulating the features of the organization of the educational process; norms concerning the increase in requirements for all participants in the educational process and the strengthening of discipline; social protection and support. A second important document has been prepared – the Concept for the Development of the Education System until 2030.
At the beginning of 2021, the State Program "Education and Youth Policy" for 2021–2025 was adopted, which defines the main directions and priorities for the activities of the republican government bodies and other state organizations in the implementation of state policy in the field of education.
On January 31, 2022, a new version of the Code of the Republic of Belarus on Education (Code) was approved. The document, taking into account the development trends of the modern educational space and the practice of applying the current code, reflects new opportunities for universities and young people, talented children and schoolchildren. In particular, distance learning is being consolidated as an independent form of education, the scope of targeted training is expanding, and the list of people who have benefits when entering universities is expanding. A new type of additional education for gifted children and youth has been determined, which will be carried out on the basis of the National Children's Technopark. The new edition of the Code provides for the universal receipt of general secondary education. On the basis of changes in the Code, new rules for admission to higher and secondary specialized institutions have been approved.
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