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Belarus.by. Официальный сайт Республики Беларусь
Belarus.by. Афіцыйны сайт Рэспублікі Беларусь
Belarus.by. Official website of the Republic of Belarus
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Национальный аэропорт «Минск». Фото БЕЛТА
Нацыянальны аэрапорт «Мінск». Фото БЕЛТА
National Airport Minsk. BELTA photo
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Минская городская ратуша. Фото БЕЛТА
Мінская гарадская ратуша. Фота БЕЛТА
Minsk City Hall. BELTA photo
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Продукция БЕЛАЗа. Фото БЕЛТА
Прадукцыя БЕЛАЗа. Фота БЕЛТА
BELAZ products. BELTA photo
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Народные обряды. Фото БЕЛТА
Народныя абрады. Фото БЕЛТА
Folk rites. BELTA photo
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Народные промыслы. Фото БЕЛТА
Народныя промыслы . Фота БЕЛТА
Folk crafts. BELTA photo

General Information

The Republic of Belarus is located on the watershed between the Black and Baltic seas and at the crossroads of European transport routes. In fact, Belarus is a crossroad for the most important Trans-European railway lines and highways, oil and gas pipelines, water and air routes between economically developed Europe and rich in natural resources Asia. The shortest routes from Central and Eastern Russia to the countries of Western Europe lie through Belarus. The geopolitical position of the country defines its history. Belarus has always been and is a connecting bridge between the East and the West, playing a significant role in strengthening the ideological and spiritual principles of the peoples of Europe.

Official name: The Republic of Belarus

President: Alexander Lukashenko (1994)

Prime Minister: Roman Golovchenko (2020)

Territory

The total area is 207,6 thousand sq. km, which makes 2% of the European territory (13th largest European state). The country stretches 560 km from north to south and 650 km from west to east. Belarus borders with Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Russia and Ukraine. There are six administrative regions (oblasts) in Belarus, which are further divided into 118 districts, and the city of Minsk.

Population

As of January 1, 2020, the republic had a population of 9,408,4 mln inhabitants, 78% of them are urban population.

Capital: Minsk – 2,020,6 mln.

Population by region:

  • Minsk Oblast – 1,472,0 mln;
  • Brest Oblast – 1,347,0 mln;
  • Vitebsk Oblast – 1,333,4 mln;
  • Gomel Oblast – 1, 386,6 mln;
  • Grodno Oblast – 1,025,8 mln;
  • Mogilev Oblast – 1,023,0 mln.

Regional centers: Brest (339,7), Vitebsk (364,8), Gomel (510,3), Grodno (356,9), Minsk (2,020,6 mln), Mogilev(357,1)

Ethnic groups

According to the 2009 census, representatives of about 140 nationalities and ethnic groups lived in the country permanently: Belarusians (83,7%), Russians (8,3%), Poles (3,1%), Ukrainians (1,7%), Jews (0,9%). The ten most numerous nationalities, in addition to the Belarusians, Russians, Poles, Ukrainians, Jews, Armenians, Tatars, Roma, Azeris and Lithuanians.

Official languages

Belarusian, Russian

State symbols

In line with Article 19 of the Constitution of the Republic of Belarus, the symbols of the Republic of Belarus as a sovereign state are the National Flag, the National Emblem and the National Anthem.

State Anthem of the Republic of Belarus
Lyrics: Mikhas Klimkovich, Uladzimir Karyznа
Music: Niescier Sakalouski

We, Belarusians, are peaceful people,
Wholeheartedly devoted to our Motherland,
We are faithful friends, growing up and
Living in a hardworking and independent family.

Glory to the blessed name of our land,
Glory to the brotherly union of peoples!
Our dearly beloved Motherland,
May you live long and prosper, Belarus!

Together with our brothers, we for centuries
Courageously defended our home’s threshold,
In battles for freedom, and battles for our lot
We have won our banners of victory!

Glory to the blessed name of our land,
Glory to the brotherly union of peoples!
Our dearly beloved Motherland,
May you live long and prosper, Belarus!

Friendship of peoples is the strength of peoples
And it is our sacred sunlit path.
Proudly we fly in the clear blue skies,
The banner of victory, the sunshine’s flag!

Glory to the blessed name of our land,
Glory to the brotherly union of peoples!
Our dearly beloved Motherland,
May you live long and prosper, Belarus!

National currency

Belarusian ruble (BYN)

Economic indicators

In 2019, the gross domestic product totaled BYN 132 bn.

The 2019 turnover of foreign trade of goods totaled USD 71,4 bn. 

Major business partners

Russia, Ukraine, China, Germany, Poland, Great Britain, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Kazakhstan, Brazil.

Geography

Belarus is situated in the forest area. It is landlocked, relatively flat, and contains large marshy tracts of land. Large area is occupied by forests and meadows alternating with vast cultivated fields. In the north there is a system of moraine ridges (Sventsyanskaya, Braslavskaya, and others), with marshy lowlands and stretches of hills between them (Neman, Narochano-Vileika, Polotsk, etc).The Belarusian Ridge, consisting of low, rolling hills, runs from west to east. The highest point is the mount Dzerzhinskaya (345 m) in Minsk region. The periglacial plains lie to the southeast of the Belarusian Ridge. In the south of the republic there is the Belarusian Polesie with its plain and swampy areas.

The Republic of Belarus is the land of lakes and forests. Belarus is called "the blue-eyed country" because there are more than 10,000 lakes and over 20,000 rivers in its territory. The rivers of Belarus belong to the basins of the Black and Baltic seas; their total length is about 90,000 kilometers. The longest rivers are: the Dnieper River (length in the territory of Belarus is 700 km), the Berezina River (613 km), the Pripyat River (495 km), the Sozh River (493 km), the Neman River (459 km), the Ptsich River (421 km). The major part of country’s lakes is situated in the north. The largest lakes are Lake Narach (surface area 79,6 sq.km), Lake Osveyskoye (52,8 sq.km), Lake Chervonoye (40,8 sq. km), Lake Lukomlskoye (37,7 sq. km), Dryvyaty (36,1 sq. km).

Flora and fauna

The woodlands (coniferous and mixed) cover a considerable part of the country’s territory. The most common tree species include pine, oak, birch, spruce, aspen and alder. As a whole, in Belarus there are over 12,000 species of plants, about 200 of which are protected by the state. Approximately 20% of the lands are covered by pastures and meadows.

The fauna of Belarus counts around 457 species of vertebrate animals and over 20,000 species of invertebrate ones. The vertebrate animals include bears, hares, deer, wolves, foxes, elks, wild boars, beavers, otters, raccoons, muskrats and squirrels. The European bison, population of which is supported in the Belovezhskaya Pushcha National Park, became a symbol of Belarus. Along with the bison the Belarusians respect and protect huge and beautiful birds, the white storks. Some of animal and bird species are threatened with extinction. For their preservation, a number of nature reserves were created. Over 180 animal species are protected by the state. The Belarusian lakes are rich in fish, especially carps.

The national park "Belovezhskaya pushcha"  is one of the most famous places in Belarus with the area of 500,000 sq.km. The park has natural borders: the Baltic Sea, Oder, Dnieper and Bug rivers. UNESCO granted the park World Heritage Site status in 1992, and Biosphere Reserve status in 1993. In 1997 the park received the European Diploma for advances in wildlife preservation.

Belarus has rich deposits of potash. It is the 3rd largest producer of potash in the world. In south and southeastern parts of the country there are deposits of oil, coal, shale oil, iron ore, nonferrous metal ores and dolomites. Deposits of clay and building stone are widespread, along with rich peat deposits. The production of oil and brown coal covers 10% of country’s total requirements in energy producing materials.

Belarus produces high-powered freight vehicles, wheeled tractors, domestic appliances, construction materials, as well as knitted fabric, footwear, clothing and foodstuff (especially well known is Belarusian potato). Potato dishes are the base of the national cuisine.

Climate

Belarus has a moderate continental climate, rather mild, humid; the weather is often cloudy and hazy (about a third of the days in a year are cloudy). The average temperature in January is −4,2 °C, and the average temperature for July is about +16,5 °C. Average annual precipitation ranges from 550 to 700 millimeters.

Outstanding people and events

The database "Belarus in persons and events" of the National Library of Belarus contains factual information about outstanding people who made a significant contribution to the scientific, cultural and spiritual heritage of Belarus; about the most important events in the economic, socio-political, cultural and other spheres of the country′s life; about memorial complexes, monuments of history, culture, nature; professional creative groups, etc.

Links to Internet resources



Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Belarus

Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection of the Republic of Belarus


Brest Regional Executive Committee

Gomel Oblast Executive Committee

Grodno Regional Executive Committee

Minsk City Executive Committee

Minsk Oblast Executive Committee

Mogilev Regional Executive Committee

Vitebsk Regional Executive Committee

Belarus. Facts

Dostoprimechatel'nosti Belarusi (Sightseeing Attractions of Belarus)

National Park «Belovezhskaya Pushcha»

Official Website of the Republic of Belarus "Belarus.by"

Official Internet Resources of the Republic of Belarus